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SummaryReliability Aerospace PCB, Generally speaking, aerospace PCB products are mainly used in aerospace airborne equipment. Airborne equipment can be divided into avionics systems and electromechanical systems, and aerospace PCBs are included in each system. The avionics system mainly includes functional s...

Reliability Aerospace PCB

Generally speaking, aerospace PCB products are mainly used in aerospace airborne equipment. Airborne equipment can be divided into avionics systems and electromechanical systems, and aerospace PCBs are included in each system. The avionics system mainly includes functional systems such as flight control, flight management, cockpit display, navigation, data and voice communication, monitoring and alarm; the electromechanical system mainly includes functional systems such as power system, air management system, fuel system, and hydraulic system.

Reliability is a critical aspect of aerospace PCBs. Aerospace PCBs are able to withstand harsh environmental conditions and operate without failure. High-reliability PCBs are the first choice for aerospace applications, including satellites, aircraft carriers, and space shuttles. Due to its mission-critical functions, designing high-reliability aerospace PCBs takes a lot of time.

Key prospects for aerospace PCBs include longevity and zero failures. The reliability of aerospace PCBs can be improved during the design and manufacturing process. Employing cutting-edge technology in the manufacturing process can enhance performance.

Another requirement for aerospace PCBs is repeatability. To ensure 100% reproducibility, each process is standardized by quantifying various elements such as process controls and measurements. Additionally, multiple processes such as Destructive Physical Analysis (DPA) and Statistical Process Control (SPC) analysis are implemented to ensure that no defects occur during the manufacturing and fabrication of aerospace PCBs.

Industrial Requirements for Aerospace PCBs

Aerospace PCBs should withstand up to 2000 cycles from 40°C to 145°C (ordinary circuit boards can withstand 120°C-300 cycles) and retain up to 30 cycles at 570°F (is the new lead-free T288 test requirement three times)

Manufacturing Standards for Aerospace PCB Industry

Global PCB manufacturers are expected to follow some industry standards to ensure better operational performance and higher reliability of aerospace PCBs to meet the requirements of aviation and aerospace applications. Some of these standards come from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which is generally recognized. Several QMS standards are spin-offs of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards. For example, AS9100D provides a list of QMS requirements for suppliers to the aerospace industry. These aerospace PCB standards focus on in-house and outsourced manufacturing processes. In addition, the AS9100D focuses on management responsibilities and emphasizes customer satisfaction.

AS9100: This is a quality management system designed for the aerospace industry. AS9100 fully integrates the quality requirements of ISO9001 and follows other safety requirements established by the aerospace industry to comply with various DOD, FAA and NASA quality requirements. Aerospace PCB manufacturers adopt the AS9100 standard to design, manufacture or test aerospace PCBs for space, aviation and defense related services.

Other standards such as IPC 6012DS focus on release requirements, minimum plating requirements for aerospace PCBs, etc. The changing dynamics of the satellite industry are driving the need for advanced standards beyond IPC Class 3A standards. The development of the J-STD-001 standard has raised some requirements for satellite/aerospace PCBs. Obviously, some of these rules and regulations generally apply to aerospace PCB designers. These design rules are mandatory for factors such as process control, release and DPA.

For example, satellite/aerospace PCBs have many more miniature parts than conventional circuit boards. Therefore, it is crucial to follow industry standards according to customer requirements for high-end applications. In addition, these standards must be followed in the final process, including quality analysis, testing, reporting and microscopic analysis of aerospace PCBs, and these processes must be strictly implemented.

Material Selection for Aerospace PCBs

Regulations that aerospace PCBs used in avionics systems such as military aircraft, satellites, and other space platforms must comply with. IPC-6012DS IPC-6012D for Space and Military Avionics Applications, IPC-6013D, Qualification and Performance Specifications for Rigid Aerospace PCBs, Flex/Rigid-Flex Aerospace PCBs. In addition to these regulations and standards, the development of avionics systems must also include a documented framework in the quality control process AS9100D compliant quality management system (QMS) and risk analysis. Aerospace PCBs require such oversight due to the difficulties avionics may encounter on orbital or interplanetary spaceflight platforms.

In order to adequately cope with the adverse conditions that may be encountered inside and outside aerospace PCBs, aerospace PCB materials should have the following properties:

Vibration and Shock Resistant

The energy required to launch a vehicle into space is enormous. As a result, almost all aerospace PCBs are subject to vibration and/or shock, which is even more of a threat for rigid aerospace PCBs since their bendability range is much tighter than flex boards.

Temperature cycle resistance

Whether inside or outside an aerospace platform, extreme temperature fluctuations can be part of normal operations. This must be taken into account when selecting aerospace PCB materials and ensure that the critical temperature parameters of the board, such as the glass transition temperature (Tg), are not violated.

Moisture resistance

In general, temperature is inversely proportional to humidity. However, in closed environments such as spaces, vehicle humidity can become an issue. Electronic equipment and aerospace PCBs can fail due to moisture. Therefore, moisture resistance is a desirable attribute for aerospace PCB materials.

Anti-radiation

Depending on the location of the spacecraft in the Earth's atmosphere, aerospace PCBs may have to withstand radiation or harmful RF. Because these types of interference can severely disrupt communications and other circuit operations, aerospace PCBs need to be resistant to them.

When selecting aerospace PCB materials for use in aerospace systems, care should be taken with regard to the above material properties.

Future Prospects for Aerospace PCBs

Advanced materials for high-frequency applications will help manufacturers extend the lifetime of aerospace PCBs to 15-20 years. Currently, polyimide is widely used in geostationary satellites. However, low-orbit satellites with a lifespan of two to three years require advanced aerospace PCB materials, and several materials such as Rogers are gaining popularity for space applications.

According to industry experts, the biggest challenge is getting electronics from the ground to space. Developing high-end technologies and embedding these technologies into satellites is a bone of contention among aerospace PCB manufacturers.




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