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2022-11-23 11:36:04 Automotive PCB 396 Viewed

SummaryThe general trend of automotive electronics drives the rapid growth of automotive PCBs. With the continuous advancement of the automobile industry, the automobile has evolved from a complete mechanical device in the past to a combination of machinery and electronics. The application of automotive PC...

The general trend of automotive electronics drives the rapid growth of automotive PCBs. With the continuous advancement of the automobile industry, the automobile has evolved from a complete mechanical device in the past to a combination of machinery and electronics. The application of automotive PCB technology in automobiles has continued to increase, which has improved the comfort, safety, and entertainment of automobiles, to meet the diverse needs of people. The car has changed from a simple means of transportation into a comprehensive platform with multiple functions such as transportation, entertainment, and office. The proportion of automotive PCBs in manufacturing costs is constantly increasing, and the market size of automotive electronics is also expanding.

Automotive electronics can be mainly divided into two categories: car body electronic control system and vehicle electronic control system. The car body control system can be divided into engine control system, body control system and chassis control system. The car body control system enables the combination of automotive mechanical systems and electronic devices, giving full play to the advantages of automotive PCB products, improving the performance of mechanical systems, and electromechanical integration. Ensure that the driving of the car is safer and more stable. The vehicle electronic control system mainly includes multimedia system, navigation system, driving recorder, reversing radar and additional systems, which increases the convenience and entertainment of the car, and improves the experience of using the automotive PCB.

Basic Requirements for Automotive PCBs

●Quality insurance requirements

Automotive PCB manufacturers should comply with the provisions of ISO9001. IATF/TS16949 is a set of technical regulations for the global automotive industry. Based on ISO9001 and the special needs of the automotive industry, we pay more attention to defect prevention and reduce quality fluctuations and waste in the auto parts supply chain.

●Basic requirements for function

a. High reliability

There are two main aspects of automotive reliability: lifespan and environmental resistance. Automotive longevity refers to the fact that normal operation can be guaranteed for a lifetime, while environmental resistance refers to the fact that automotive PCB functionality remains the same when the environment changes.

During the application process, the car should withstand climate change, from extremely cold winter to hot summer, from sunshine to rain, as well as environmental changes caused by the temperature rise caused by its own operation. In other words, automotive electronic systems and automotive PCBs must withstand multiple environmental challenges, including temperature, humidity, rain, acid mist, vibration, electromagnetic interference, and current surge. In addition, automotive PCBs are assembled inside the car, which is mainly affected by temperature and humidity. So reliability has become one of the basic requirements for automotive PCBs.

b. Lightweight and miniaturization

Lightweight and miniaturized cars are conducive to energy saving. The light weight comes from the reduced weight of each component. For example, some metal parts are replaced by engineering plastic parts. In addition, both automotive electronics and automotive PCBs should be miniaturized, and the shrinking of automotive PCBs comes from increased density, reduced area, thinness, and multiple layers.

Functions of Automotive PCBs

Cars combine mechanics and electronics. Modern automotive technology blends traditional techniques with advanced science, such as handcrafted interior trim pieces and advancing GPS. In modern cars, different positions have different functions of electronic devices, and different functions of electronic devices come from different types of automotive PCBs.

According to the substrate material, automotive PCBs can be divided into two categories: inorganic ceramic-based PCBs and organic resin-based PCBs. Ceramic PCB has high temperature resistance and excellent dimensional stability, which can be directly applied to high temperature motor system. However, its ceramics have poor maneuverability and high cost. At present, with the development of resin substrate materials in terms of heat resistance, resin-based PCBs have been widely used in automobiles, and different positions should be used for automotive PCB substrate materials with different properties.

FPC PCBs and rigid PCBs are used in common gauges, indicating vehicle speed and mileage, and air-conditioning equipment. Automotive PCBs such as double-layer or multi-layer PCBs and FPC PCBs are used for audio and video entertainment equipment inside cars, respectively. For communication and wireless positioning equipment and safety control equipment, generally multi-layer PCB, HDI PCB and Flex PCB are used more. In terms of automotive motor control systems and power transmission control systems, special circuit boards, such as metal-based PCBs and flexible rigid PCBs, should be used. For automotive micro, component embedded PCBs are applied. For example, the microprocessor chip is applied to the power controller and is directly embedded in the power controller PCB. Another example is that component embedded PCBs are also used in navigation equipment and stereoscopic imaging equipment for automatic support systems.

Automotive PCBs belong to the category of high-reliability products, so automotive PCBs must pass some reliability tests, in addition to common requirements such as size, mechanical and electrical performance. Automotive PCBs are more suitable for high-temperature environments, especially for thick copper PCBs that need to deal with external heat and self-heating. Therefore, automotive PCBs have higher requirements for heat resistance.

Manufacturing Characteristics of Automotive PCBs

The demand for automotive PCB categories is diversified, mainly based on electronics. The requirements for automotive PCBs are diversified. Single and double-sided PCBs, 4 layer PCBs, 6 layer PCBs, and 8-16 layer PCBs accounted for 26.93%, 25.70%, and 17.37% respectively, accounting for about 73% in total. HDI, FPC, IC The proportions of carrier boards are 9.56%, 14.57%, and 2.38%, respectively, accounting for about 27% in total. It can be seen that multilayer boards are still the main demand for automotive electronics. The demand for automotive PCBs is dominated by 2-6 layer PCBs, which account for about 2% of the cost of vehicle electronic devices.

●High frequency substrate

Automotive collision avoidance/predictive braking safety systems function as military radar devices. Since the automotive PCB is responsible for transmitting microwave high-frequency signals, a substrate with low dielectric loss and common substrate material PTFE are required. Unlike FR4 materials, PTFE or similar high-frequency substrate materials require special drilling speeds and feed rates during drilling.

●Thick copper PCB

Automotive PCB products bring additional heat energy due to high density and high power, hybrids and electric motors usually require more advanced power transmission systems and more electronic functions, which lead to more requirements for heat dissipation and high current.

It is relatively easy to manufacture a thick copper double-layer PCB, but it is much more difficult to manufacture a thick copper multilayer PCB. The key is a thick copper image etch and a thick void fill.

●Component embedding

Component-embedded PCBs are used on a large scale in mobile phones to increase assembly density and reduce component size, which is also adopted by other electronic devices. Therefore, component embedded PCBs are also used in automotive electronics.

●HDI technology

One of the key functions of automotive electronics lies in entertainment and communication, where smartphones and tablets require HDI PCBs. Therefore, technologies included in HDI PCBs, such as micro-via drilling and amplifiers. Plating and lamination positioning applied in automotive PCB manufacturing.

New Energy Automotive PCB

New energy vehicles are becoming the race track for PCB companies. Automotive PCBs are used in control systems, audio-visual systems, GPS modules, etc. With the continuous improvement of automotive electronics, the demand for automotive PCB applications will continue to increase. "The electrification, intelligence, and networking of new energy vehicles have increased the use of chips, which directly drives the use of automotive PCBs in single vehicles. The automotive PCB market for new energy vehicles is currently growing, and subsidies for car purchases are being implemented everywhere, especially for new. The subsidy for energy vehicles is stronger, coupled with the tilt of the policy, the sales of new energy vehicles should be no problem.

According to reports, 65% of the actual value of electronic products lies in the power system, car body and chassis, and most of them are related to digital power. The electronic value of the motor will be more than 70%. The demand for automotive PCBs in new energy also has great potential. With the support of industrial policies, the domestic new energy vehicle market has maintained rapid growth since 2014. BMS in new energy vehicles is one of the core components, and as one of the basic components of BMS, automotive PCB boards will also benefit from the development of new energy vehicles.

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Automotive PCB Description

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Automotive PCB standards

The reliability requirements of automotive PCBs are high, and automotive PCB products need to have good stability. In terms of technology, the product defect rate of automotive PCB is lower than that of ordinary PCB. When automotive PCB manufacturing, it is necessary to control the accuracy requirements of the circuit, the thickness of the solder mask and the quality of the substrate.

Automotive PCB suppliers

Lightweight and miniaturized cars are conducive to energy saving, and the design of automotive PCB boards should pay attention to its performance. Automotive PCBs belong to the category of high-reliability products, so automotive PCB suppliers must pass some reliability tests. As an automotive PCB manufacturer, Huihe PCB has passed the IATF16949 automotive quality management certification, and has more than 10 years of experience in manufacturing automotive PCBs.

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