Printed Circuit Board Assembly Test

2022-11-24 16:22:05 Printed Circuit Board Assembly 165 Viewed

SummaryThe technological process of printed circuit board assembly patch processing is very complicated, including PCB board manufacturing process, component procurement and inspection, SMT patch assembly, DIP plug-in, printed circuit board assembly testing and many other important processes. Among them, t...

The technological process of printed circuit board assembly patch processing is very complicated, including PCB board manufacturing process, component procurement and inspection, SMT patch assembly, DIP plug-in, printed circuit board assembly testing and many other important processes. Among them, the printed circuit board assembly test is the most critical quality control link in the entire printed circuit board assembly processing process. The printed circuit board assembly test is to detect the conductivity and output and input values of the printed circuit board assembly board, which determines the final performance of the product.

Printed circuit board assembly test refers to the test of IC burning, line on-off, current, voltage, pressure and other aspects of the printed circuit board assembly board. There are many uncontrollable factors in the printed circuit board assembly production process. It is difficult to ensure that the printed circuit board assembly is a complete product. Printed circuit board assembly testing is a necessary link to strictly control the quality of shipments. Different products, different customer requirements, printed circuit board assembly test will be different. In general, printed circuit board assembly test mainly includes ICT online test, FCT function test, burn-in test.

The Process of Printed Circuit Board Assembly Test

Printed circuit board assembly testing generally formulates a specific testing process according to the customer's testing plan. The basic printed circuit board assembly testing process is as follows:

Program burning-→ICT test-→FCT test- aging test

1. Program burning

After the printed circuit board assembly board completes the front-end welding process, the engineer starts to program the single-chip microcomputer in the printed circuit board assembly board, so that the single-chip microcomputer can realize specific functions.

2. ICT test

The ICT test mainly touches the test point of the printed circuit board assembly with the test probe to realize the test of the circuit open circuit, short circuit and electronic component soldering of the printed circuit board assembly. The accuracy of ICT tests is relatively high, the instructions are clear, and the scope of use is relatively wide.

3. FCT test

The FCT test can test the environment, current, voltage, pressure and other parameters of the printed circuit board assembly. The content of the test is relatively comprehensive, which can ensure that various parameters of the printed circuit board assembly board meet the designer's design requirements.

4. Aging test

The burn-in test can ensure the stability of the product by continuously energizing the printed circuit board assembly board, simulating the scene used by the user, detecting some defects that are not easy to find, and checking the service life of the product.

After the printed circuit board assembly has passed a series of printed circuit board assembly tests, there is no problem printed circuit board assembly boards can be labeled as qualified, and finally it can be packaged and shipped.

The printed circuit board assembly process is complex. In the process of production and processing, various problems may occur due to improper equipment or operation, and the products produced cannot be guaranteed to be qualified. Therefore, PCB testing is required to ensure that each product will not have quality problems.

How to Test Printed Circuit Board Assembly

The common methods of printed circuit board assembly testing mainly include the following:

1. Manual testing

Manual testing is to test directly by vision, and confirm the component placement on the PCB through vision and comparison. This technology is widely used. However, the large number and small printed circuit board assembly components make this method less and less applicable. Moreover, some printed circuit board assembly functional defects are not easy to be found, and data is not easy to collect. Thus, more specialized testing methods are required.

2. Automatic Optical Inspection (AOI)

Automatic optical inspection is also called automatic visual inspection. It is carried out by a special detector and used before and after reflow. It has a better effect on the polarity inspection of printed circuit board assembly components. Easy-to-follow diagnosis is a relatively common method, but this method is poor for short-circuit identification.

3. Flying probe tester

Needle testing has gained popularity over the past few years due to advances in mechanical precision, speed, and reliability. In addition, the current requirements for printed circuit board assembly prototype (Prototype) manufacturing and low-volume manufacturing require a test system with fast switching and no fixture capabilities, making flying probe testing the best choice.

4. Function test

This is a test method for a specific PCB or a specific printed circuit board assembly, which is done by specialized equipment. Functional testing mainly includes final product testing (Final Product Test) and the latest physical model (Hot Mock-up).

5. Manufacturing Defect Analyzer (MDA)

The main advantages of this test method are low upfront cost, high output, easy printed circuit board assembly, follow-up diagnosis and fast complete short and open circuit testing, etc. The disadvantage is that printed circuit board assembly functional testing cannot be performed, usually there is no test coverage indication, fixtures must be used, and the testing cost is high.

Printed Circuit Board Assembly Test Equipment

Common printed circuit board assembly testing equipment includes: ICT online tester, FCT functional test and burn-in test.

1. ICT online tester

ICT is an automatic online tester, which has a wide range of applications and is easy to operate. The ICT automatic online detector is mainly for production process control, and can measure resistance, capacitance, inductance, and integrated circuits. It is especially effective for detecting open circuit, short circuit, component damage, etc., with accurate fault location and convenient maintenance.

2. FCT function test

The FCT function test is to point to the printed circuit board assembly board to provide a simulated operating environment such as excitation and load, and can obtain various state parameters of the board to detect whether the functional parameters of the board meet the design requirements. FCT function test items mainly include voltage, current, power, power factor, frequency, duty cycle, brightness and color, character recognition, voice recognition, temperature measurement, pressure measurement, motion control, FLASH and EEPROM programming, etc.

3. Aging test

The Aging test refers to the process of simulating various factors involved in the actual use conditions of the product to carry out corresponding condition strengthening experiments on the aging of the product. According to the printed circuit board assembly board of electronic products, a long-term power-on test can be carried out to simulate customer use and conduct input/output tests to ensure that its performance meets market demand.

These three kinds of testing equipment are common in the printed circuit board assembly process. Printed circuit board assembly testing in the printed circuit board assembly processing link can ensure that the printed circuit board assembly board delivered to the customer meets the customer's design requirements and greatly reduces the repair rate.

The Importance of Printed Circuit Board Assembly Testing

The production and processing technology of printed circuit board assembly is very complicated, including the production of PCB boards, the procurement and testing of electronic components, SMT placement, DIP plug-in and other processes. In the production factory, a series of problems may be caused by various reasons. Therefore, it is necessary to use professional testing equipment, such as a multimeter, to confirm whether the printed circuit board assembly board design is perfect. The importance of printed circuit board assembly testing is reflected in the following points:

1. Improve the production capacity of the enterprise: the higher the pass rate of the printed circuit board assembly test, the higher the pass rate of the product, improve the quality of the product, and promote the production capacity of the enterprise.

2. Enhance the economic benefits of the enterprise: only products that have withstood the test will be liked by users. In the process of testing, errors will be found in time and adjustments will be made to make the products more perfect, so that the products will be favored by customers when they are put into the market. So as to stimulate the development of economic benefits of enterprises. Printed circuit board assembly testing generally takes the following forms:

1. ICT test: test circuit, current, voltage, amplitude and noise, etc.

2. FCT test: Test the function of printed circuit board assembly, such as whether the LED light can be on after pressing the button, whether it can restore the factory settings, etc.

3. Fatigue test: carry out high-frequency and long-term operation on a sample basis to observe whether there will be failures to determine the probability of failures, so as to understand the performance of the printed circuit board assembly board.

4. Extreme environment test: The printed circuit board assembly board is placed in harsh and extreme environments, such as high temperature, severe cold, drop, etc., and the reliability of the printed circuit board assembly board is calculated through the test results.

Printed circuit board assembly testing is an indispensable and important link to ensure the quality of product delivery. It determines the performance of the product, controls the quality of the product, reduces the after-sales and repair rate, makes customers more trustworthy, and promotes win-win cooperation between enterprises and customers.

PCBA Detection and Printed Circuit Board Assembly Test

In the processing process, there are printed circuit board assembly inspection procedures and printed circuit board assembly testing procedures. Many people will confuse printed circuit board assembly inspection and printed circuit board assembly testing, but in fact the two processes and the equipment used are completely irrelevant, and their functions are also different. Yes, so what is the difference between printed circuit board assembly detection and printed circuit board assembly testing?

Printed circuit board assembly inspection refers to the inspection of the processing quality of printed circuit board assembly circuit boards, which requires the use of various printed circuit board assembly inspection equipment, such as: SPI, AOI, X-RAY, etc. Different procedures require different inspection equipment, such as after solder paste printing. It is necessary to use SPI to detect the effect of solder paste printing, and to use AOI to detect the quality of the chip after the component is mounted. After the soldering is completed, it is also necessary to use AOI or XRAY to check the soldering effect or the component after soldering. Therefore, printed circuit board assembly testing is mainly to check out the quality problems caused by various processes in the processing process.

The printed circuit board assembly test refers to the functional test and inspection of the finished printed circuit board assembly circuit board, mainly including functional test, aging test, environmental test, etc., to test whether the printed circuit board assembly circuit board can work normally under various conditions. Various test fixtures and aging test machines are used to test the electrical performance, current and voltage parameters of printed circuit board assembly circuit boards.

Therefore, to sum up, printed circuit board assembly testing is to check whether printed circuit board assembly has quality problems during processing, while printed circuit board assembly testing is to check whether printed circuit board assembly has functional and reliability problems, which is also the difference between the two where.


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